Brain Tumors - Classifications, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

Brain Tumors - Classifications, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

Brain tumors, or intracranial tumors, are abnormal growths where cells multiply uncontrollably, bypassing normal cellular control mechanisms. Over 150 types of brain tumors exist, falling into two primary categories: primary and metastatic.

Primary brain tumors originate from brain tissues or nearby areas. They're classified based on the type of cell they arise from – glial or non-glial – and can be either benign or malignant.

Metastatic brain tumors, however, start in other body parts (like the breast or lungs) and spread to the brain, typically through the bloodstream. These are always malignant and affect about one in four cancer patients, especially those with lung cancer. Improved diagnostic and treatment methods have significantly enhanced survival rates and life quality post-diagnosis.

Types of Brain Tumors

  • Chordomas: Slow-growing tumors found in people aged 50-60, usually at the skull base or spine.

  • Craniopharyngiomas: Benign but hard to remove due to their deep brain location.

  • Gangliocytomas, Gangliomas, and Anaplastic Gangliogliomas: Rare tumors occurring mainly in young adults.

  • Glomus Jugulare Tumors: Commonly benign, located under the skull base.

  • Meningiomas: Most common benign brain tumors, originating from brain and spinal cord membranes.

  • Pineocytomas: Generally benign, arising from pineal cells.

  • Pituitary Adenomas: Common benign tumors affecting the pituitary gland.

  • Schwannomas: Benign tumors arising from nerve-insulating cells, including Acoustic Neuromas.

Types of Malignant Brain Tumors

  • Gliomas: Most common adult brain tumors from glial cells, including Astrocytomas, Ependymomas, Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), Medulloblastomas, and Oligodendrogliomas.

Other Brain Tumor Types

  • Hemangioblastomas: Slow-growing tumors in the cerebellum, from blood vessels.

  • Rhabdoid Tumors: Aggressive tumors common in young children.

Pediatric Brain Tumors

Children's brain tumors differ from adults', with common types including Medulloblastomas, Pilocytic Astrocytomas, Ependymomas, Craniopharyngiomas, and Brainstem Gliomas. Children under five face developmental risks from treatments like radiation therapy.

The WHO grading system classifies tumors based on malignancy and histological features. Malignant tumors show rapid growth, invasive behavior, and a tendency for recurrence.

Symptoms and Causes


Symptoms vary by tumor location, including headaches, seizures, cognitive or speech difficulties, personality changes, physical weakness or paralysis, balance issues, vision or hearing changes, facial numbness, nausea, confusion, and disorientation.


Diagnostic methods include CT scans, MRIs, MRS, PET scans, and biopsies for definitive diagnosis.


Treatment involves surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Surgical options include craniotomy, stereotactic biopsy, and surgical navigation systems. Intraoperative language mapping is used for tumors affecting language areas. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting or Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy may be needed for hydrocephalus management. Treatment choices depend on various factors, including tumor type and location.

At SpineandBrainIndia, under the guidance of Dr. Arun Saroha, recognized as one of the best neurosurgeons in India, we are dedicated to providing the highest standard of care in brain tumor treatment. Our approach combines advanced diagnostic methods and cutting-edge treatment options, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, tailored to the specific needs of each patient. With a deep commitment to patient well-being and a focus on innovative techniques, SpineandBrainIndia stands at the forefront of brain tumor treatment in India. We ensure that every patient receives comprehensive care, harnessing the latest advancements in medical science to improve outcomes and enhance quality of life.

Share this article


Sign up for our newsletter